pfs10063 TURKEY: Mount Ararat

see also pfs10183

“.. For it is known indirectly from early third-century BC Graeco-Babylonian sources that visitors (perhaps pilgrims or tourists) used to go to a site in Kurdistan/ancient Armenia (the eastern Turkey region) to see the remains of ‘the Ark’. And the original Hebrew Bible describes the Ark as having come to rest ‘on a mountain in Urartu’. The ancient first millennium BC kingdom of Urartu translates today as ‘Armenia’ or in the Bible as ‘Ararat’. The Muslim Koran says that the Ark came to rest on a mountain called Al-Judi. The flood legend recurs all over the world – in India, Europe, South America and China as well as the Middle East”
interesting article in : the Independent by David Keys

Mount Ararat on the border of Turkey and Armenia

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“Over the years various groups have explored Ararat in the hopes of finding remains of Noah’s Ark. Both Josephus in about 70 A.D. and Marco Polo about 1300 A.D. mention its existence on the mountain, but their reports are based on others’ accounts. Josephus remarks that its remains are on display for all to see without the need for an organized exploration. In more recent years many groups have hunted for it there. The possibility that ancient fables are historical fact is intriguing, and each new discovery of truth in previously discredited records gives additional strength to continue the search for archaeological confirmation.”
www.allaboutturkey.com


Ararat MOUNT (Pers. Kūh-e Nūḥ, Arm. Masis or Masik, Turk. Ağr dağ or Eğri dağ), an extinct volcano in the northeastern extremity of Turkey close to the Iran-Soviet frontiers. Mt. Ararat rises more than 4000 m above the plains of the Araxes basin (İğdir depression, altitude 875 m) to the northeast and more than 3000 m above the Doğu Bayazıt depression (altitude 2000 m) to the south. The mountain is a range made up of two summits, Great Ararat (5,165 m) in the northwest and Little Ararat (3,925 m) in the southeast, and a narrow connecting ridge approximately 2687 m high and 14 km long which is called Serdar Bulak after a spring situated lower down.
www.iranicaonline.org

TURKEY -Ani excavation site

Turkey, ANI excavation site, 'Ramparts of Smbat II'><br />
<a name=pfs10021 TURKEY: ‘ANI’ excavation site -“Ramparts of Smbat II”

DESCRIPTION:
Since Ani is protected naturally with ravines, and rivers on all sides except the north, the second ramparts were constructed by King Smbat II (977-989AD) to strengthen this north side. Epigraphic evidence document repairs in the periods of Gagik I, Ebu’l Manuchehr and Ebu’l Muammeran.
There are cross motives, lion and snake reliefs and tile decorations on outer facades of the ramparts and a four-line Kufic inscription documenting the conquest of the city by the Seljuk Sultan Alpaslan on the tower to the east side of the ramparts where the Lion Gate is located. This is one of the seven entrances into the city, which are named as Ugurun, Kars, Lion (Arslani) Chess Satrancli), Acemagili, Migmig Ravine Gate and Bagseki on the basis of their orientation or decoration. Taking its name from a lion frieze between two towers on its inner part, the Lion Gate was possibly the main entrance into the city from the northwest and now serves as the main visitor entrance.
text from info boards on location

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Turkey, ANI excavation site, Kars gat
pfs10024 TURKEY: ‘ANI’ excavation site -‘Kars gate’

DESCRIPTION:
Ani, capital of melancholia
“When approaching Ani one is left with an impression of its magnificent architecture, but there is also something very melancholy about the place. The city is surrounded by walls with round rose-coloured towers built of tuff and punctured with the marks of thousands of arrows. The city itself is built on a triangular site where two rivers have carved deep ravines into the landscape from the east and the south the Ahuryan River ravines and from the west, the smaller river Tsaghkots flows across a gorge where hundreds of caves served as dwellings for the poorer classes of the past.”Open Wounds: Armenians, Turks and a Century of Genocide. By Vicken Cheterian
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TURKEY: 'ANI' excavation site -Ramparts towards Lion Gate
pfs10025 TURKEY: ‘ANI’ excavation site -Ramparts towards Lion Gate

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TURKEY: 'ANI' excavation site -Lion's Gate
pfs10113 TURKEY: ‘ANI’ excavation site -“Lion’s Gate”

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Stereo photograph of the interior of the Minuchihr mosque in Ani, Turkey
Stereo photograph of the interior of the Minuchihr mosque in Ani, Turkey

Kurkdjian’s Stereoscopic Photographs of Ani
Onnes (or Ohannes) Kurkdjian, born in 1851, was an Armenian photographer who was based in Yerevan for part of the 19th century.
text & picture from: virtualani.org


TURKEY: ANI excavation site -Church of the Redeemer
pfs10175 TURKEY: ‘ANI’ excavation site -“Church of the Redeemer”

Surp Amenap’rkitch Church
Other known names
Church of the Holy Saviour of All; Church of the Redeemer, St. P’rkitch, St. Petros, St. Arak’Eal

DESCRIPTION:
History of the church
According to its inscriptions, the church of the Surp Amenap’rkitch was built in 1035 to house a piece of the true cross by Prince Abulgharib Pahluvani, A zhamatun was added in 1193 for the accommodation of the pilgrims and a bell tower was erected in 1271 next to the main entrance. Earthquake damage to the church is reported first time in 1131. Its dome was restored in 1342 following the disastrous earthquake of 1319.

When Nikolai Yakovlevich Marr and his team started the first scientific excavations at Ani (from 1892 to 1917) the church was still standing but was in an unstable state. In 1912 they restored the walls of the church to prevent a total collapse. Marr’s intervention was done with smaller sized masonry in darker colours than the originals can now be detected easily. Nonetheless, the eastern half of the church collapsed completely in 1957. The still-standing western half which was badly damaged in the 1988 earthquake is under the threat of total collapse.

In 1996 Ani archaeological site was listed in World’s Monuments Fund’s Watch list and during a mission initiated by the Historical Heritage Protection Foundation in 1998-9 some of the walls of the church were stabilised and the main door was filled with rubble stone masonry to prevent any further collapses.

Historic Preservation Project
In 2006 Ministry of Culture and Tourism started an extensive preservation programme at Ani archaeological site. In 2006 Prikitch Church was scientifically documented for the first time and a historical preservation project was prepared.

Conservation Works
In 2010 World Monuments Fund and Ministry of Culture and Tourism signed a memorandum of understanding for the conservation of the Prikitch Church. Works began in 2012.

The conservation project for Surp Amenap’rkitch Church consists of three planned phases: In the first phase, after the assembly of a fence around the project site for the security and safety of the visitors, erection of a protective and load-bearing scaffolding inside the monument is planned for the security of the excavation team.

In the second phase: excavation and cataloguing work will start following the re-location of the fallen remains of the east part of the church to a safe and secure area. These remains will then be documented with a 3D laser scanning survey and virtual modelling to determine the original locations of each piece. (https://www.facebook.com/pargev.frankian/media_set?set=a.2436085689738631.1073741833.100000116716132&type=3) Following the excavations survey and documentation, emergency stabilisation works will be completed.

After the evaluation of the data obtained from the structural monitoring system installed on the structure in May 2012, from the construction material analyses, wall paint analyses, excavation and cataloguing, the structural stabilisation works are planned to be completed in the third phase.

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TURKEY: ANI excavation site -Minuchihr Mosque
pfs10090 TURKEY: ‘ANI’ excavation site -“Minuchihr Mosque”

DESCRIPTION:
‘Open Wounds: Armenians, Turks and a Century of Genocide’, by Vicken Cheterian
google books
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TURKEY: ANI excavation site -the Cathedral
pfs10039 TURKEY: ‘ANI’ excavation site -“the Cathedral”

DESCRIPTION:
The building work started in the year 989AD under King Smbat II (980-989AD) and was completed by the year 1001/1010AD by order of Queen Katramide, the wife of King Gagik.
The cathedral was dedicated to Mother of God Maria and was the work of Trdat, who also restored the dome of Hagia Sophia Church in Constantinople.
In 1064AD Seljukid Sultan Alparslan conquered Ani and the cathedral was converted to a mosque, renamed the Fethiye Camii (the Victory Mosque) and he performed his first Friday Prayer in the cathedral.
The plan is in the form of rectangular outwardly and a domed basilica three naves inwardly. there is a square annexe in the northwest corner, a chapel and two burial chambers in front of the east wall and the Hripsime Chapel on the southeast corner.

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TURKEY: ANI excavation site -the Cathedral II
pfs10133 TURKEY: ‘ANI’ excavation site -“the Cathedral II”

DESCRIPTION:
An imposing cathedral
“A rust-coloured brick redoubt, the Cathedral of Ani looms over the now-abandoned city. Although its dome collapsed in an earthquake in 1319 – and, centuries later, another earthquake destroyed its northwest corner – it is still imposing in scale. It was completed in 1001 under the reign of Armenian King Gagik I, when the wealth and population of Ani were at its peak. Trdat, the renowned Armenian architect who designed it, also served the Byzantines by helping them repair the dome of the Hagia Sophia.”
www.bbc.com
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TURKEY: ANI excavation site -inside the Cathedral I
pfs10169 TURKEY: ‘ANI’ excavation site -“inside the ‘Cathedral’ I”

DESCRIPTION:
“The cathedral of Ani is worthy (if, indeed, it still exists) of far greater renown than actually surrounds it.”
Buxton, David Roden (1937). Russian Mediaeval Architecture with an Account of the Transcaucasian Styles and Their Influence in the West. Cambridge University Press. pp. 90–91.
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TURKEY: ANI excavation site -
pfs10098 TURKEY: ‘ANI’ excavation site -“inside the ‘Cathedral’ II”

DESCRIPTION:
Campbell, Verity (2007). Turkey. Lonely Planet. p. 582. ISBN 978-1-74104-556-7. “… the cathedral, renamed the Fethiye Camii (Victory Mosque) by the Seljuk conquerors, is the largest and most impressive of the buildings.”
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TURKEY: ANI excavation site -
pfs10143 TURKEY: ‘ANI’ excavation site -“inside the ‘Cathedral’ III”

DESCRIPTION:
“Cathedral of Ani (Armenian: Անիի մայր տաճար, Anii mayr tačar; Turkish: Ani Katedrali) is the largest standing building in Ani, capital of medieval Bagratid Armenia, located in present-day eastern Turkey, on the border with modern Armenia. It was completed in the early 11th century by the architect Trdat and was the seat of the Catholicos, the head of the Armenian Apostolic Church, for nearly half a century.

In 1064, following the Seljuk conquest of Ani, the cathedral was converted into a mosque. It later returned to being used as an Armenian church. It eventually suffered damage in a 1319 earthquake when its conical dome collapsed. Subsequently, Ani was gradually abandoned and the church fell into disuse. The north-western corner of the church was heavily damaged by a 1988 earthquake.

The cathedral is considered the largest and most impressive structure of Ani. It is a domed basilica with a rectangular plan, though the dome and most of its supporting drum are now missing. Its use of pointed arches and cluster piers has been widely cited by scholars to have possibly influenced, or at least preceded Gothic architecture. The cathedral, along with the entire site of Ani, was declared a World Heritage site by the UNESCO in 2016.”

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathedral_of_Ani
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TURKEY: ANI excavation site -inside the Cathedral IV
pfs10097 TURKEY: ‘ANI’ excavation site -“inside the ‘Cathedral’ IV”

DESCRIPTION:
Krautheimer, Richard (1965). Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture. Penguin Books. p. 234. The exterior walls are covered with decorative sculpture, as at Aght’amar; or they are articulated, as at the cathedrals of Ani and Marmashen (986–1029), by blind arcades resting on slender colonnettes, single or in pairs. … Monastery at Goshavank, built in 928–953, and the cathedral of Ani of 989–1001 both take up the plan of the cathedral of Talin with only minor differences.
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TURKEY: 'ANI' excavation site -
pfs10095 TURKEY: ‘ANI’ excavation site -“inside the ‘Cathedral’ V”

DESCRIPTION:
“Secret water channels, undiscovered monk cells, meditation rooms, huge corridors, intricate tunnels, traps and corners were found under the ruins of the ancient Armenian town of Ani. AA Photo
The underground secrets of the historic Ani Ruins, an ancient, 5,000-year-old Armenian city located on the Turkish-Armenian border in the eastern province of Kars, have been revealed.
While speaking at the recent “International Ani-Kars Symposium,” history researcher Sezai Yazıcı said secret water channels, undiscovered monk cells, meditation rooms, huge corridors, intricate tunnels, unbelievable traps and corners that make one lose their sense of direction were just some of the unknown underground structures located at the ancient site.”
www.hurriyetdailynews.com
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TURKEY: ANI excavation site -text on the entrance to the Cathedral
pfs10144 TURKEY: ‘ANI’ excavation site -text on the entrance to the ‘Cathedral’

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1905 or 1906 Nikolai_Marr_excavations 1 Saint Gregory King Gagik Ani Turkey
Archaeologist Nicolai Iakovlevich Marr at the citadel of Ani


TURKEY: ANI excavation site -Church of Saint Gregory
pfs10155 TURKEY: ‘ANI’ excavation site -“Church of Saint Gregory”

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TURKEY: ANI excavation site -view from Palace towards the caves
pfs10102 TURKEY: ‘ANI’ excavation site -view from Palace towards the caves

DESCRIPTION:
The remnants of an underground city
“Opposite the Church of St Gregory of the Abughamrentsare a series of caves dug out of the rock, which some historians speculate may predate Ani. The caves are sometimes described as Ani’s “underground city” and signs point to their use as tombs and churches. In the early 20th Century, some of these caves were still used as dwellings.”
www.bbc.com
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King Gagik´s church
pfs10163 TURKEY: ‘ANI’ excavation site -“King Gagik´s church”

DESCRIPTION:
King Gagik´s church St Gregory constructed between the years 1001 and 1005 Ani archaeological site on the Ancient Silk Road.
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King Gagik´s church
pfs10055 TURKEY: ‘ANI’ excavation site -“King Gagik´s church I”

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King Gagik´s church
pfs10103 TURKEY: ‘ANI’ excavation site -“King Gagik´s church II”

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pfs10107 TURKYE: ‘ANI’ excavation site -“King Gagik´s church III”

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city walls
pfs10110 TURKEY: ‘ANI’ excavation site -city walls

DESCRIPTION: Archaeological Site of Ani
“This site is located on a secluded plateau of northeast Turkey overlooking a ravine that forms a natural border with Armenia. This medieval city combines residential, religious and military structures, characteristic of a medieval urbanism built up over the centuries by Christian and then Muslim dynasties. The city flourished in the 10th and 11th centuries CE when it became the capital of the medieval Armenian kingdom of the Bagratides and profited from control of one branch of the Silk Road. Later, under Byzantine, Seljuk and Georgian sovereignty, it maintained its status as an important crossroads for merchant caravans. The Mongol invasion and a devastating earthquake in 1319 marked the beginning of the city’s decline. The site presents a comprehensive overview of the evolution of medieval architecture through examples of almost all the different architectural innovations of the region between the 7th and 13th centuries CE.”
whc.unesco.org

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Georgian church
pfs10121 TURKEY: ‘ANI’ excavation site -“Georgian church”

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TURKEY: 'Ani -map excavation site'
pfs10176 TURKEY: ‘ANI’ excavation site -map


St. Asdvadzadzin Church

The complex of Emir Ebu’l Muammeran

Date and patron
It was built between 1164-1200AD by Shaddadian Sahinsah who was named Ebu’l Muammeran, therefore, rebuilt to Ani.

Description
The complex consists of a rectangular masjid, a minaret and a square tomb.
Almost nothing remains of this mosque except for the large fragments of its minaret which fell down in 1890. The very tall octagonal minaret had an inscription on it which forbade “the sale of sheep and camels in front of the mosque”.

LINKS:
small pictures about excavations and Marr are from Wikimedia with much more information about the various churches and sites on Wikipedia
1905 or 1906: Nikolai Marr excavation in Saint Gregory (King Gagik), Ani, Turkey: Workers re-erecting a column.
Loads of resources and facts here: www.virtualani.org
Author Nikolai Marr’s book: “Ani, knizhnaya istoriya goroda i raskopki” (“Ani, a history of the city and the excavations”), Leningrad, 1934.
Strategic conservationmaster plan for Ani